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Intitulé du cours: Reparation of grave and massive violations of human rights and humanitarian law

Enseignant(s): Hélène Tigroudja, Professeure, Aix-Marseille Université

Type d’enseignement: interactive course

Semestre: second semester

Nombre d’heures de cours: 12 hrs

Langue principale: English (and French for some documents)





International public law/international human rights law/international humanitarian law


Description of the course:

Based on the practice of the international tribunals (regional human rights courts, International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court), and on materials adopted by the UN organs, the course aims to understand and analyze the legal and practical challenges faced with by the victims of grave and massive violations of human rights. The right to reparation is not firmly recognized by the international law and when provisions are adopted in favor of reparation (see Art. 75 of the ICC Statute; article 41 of the European Convention of Human Rights…), the implementation raises tremendous difficulties that should be solved. The course aims at examining these problems and the legal/political solutions that could be found.


NB. Due to the special type of the course, the number of available places is restricted to 20 persons.




Session No 1: International legal framework of reparation (2hrs):


Readings: (For the official texts, see the official website of the ECHR, ACHR, African Court and ICC.)

Article 41 of the European Convention of Human Rights

Article 63 of the American Convention of Human Rights

Article 27 of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights

Article 75 of the International Criminal Court


+ Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law (UNGA,16 December 2005):


Session 2 (10hrs): Overview of reparations before international tribunals



1) Before the International Court of Justice:

- Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), judgment 19 December 2005:

+ order adopted on 1st July, 2015:


2) Before the ICC

- Prosecutor v. Th. Lubanga. Decision establishing the principles and procedures to be applied to reparations, 6 August 2012:


3) Before the Human Rights courts

- Eur. Crt Human Rights, Cyprus v. Turkey, 12 May 2014:


- Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Rochela Massacre v. Colombia, 11 May 2007:


Session 3 (2hrs): Conclusion and reflections on the recognition of an individual/collective right to reparation in case of grave and massive violations of human rights.



- Hennebel L., Tigroudja (H.), Traité de droit international des droits de l’homme, Paris : Pédone, 2016, pp. 1369-1430.


Objectives of the course:

The purposes of the course are to analyze the legal, political, economic, sociological and even philosophical issues raised by the reparation matters, especially in cases of massive violations of rights. These questions are complex and the international legal rules are not homogenous. Based on this case-by-case analysis of the topics, the students will be able to understand on a comprehensive approach what is at stake.



The evaluation of students will consist of short oral presentation – during the session – of one of the cases indicated in the list.

The reading of all documents is mandatory.

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